Castle

Description

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  • Overview
    The Character Area incorporates Lincoln Castle, a landmark building located in a strategic position at the top of the north escarpment, and a number of buildings lying outside of the main walls that fall under the influence of the Castle. The area is part of the core of the upper city, which, alongside neighbouring areas, forms part of an identifiable neighbourhood on the north escarpment, the townscape character of which is strongly influenced by developments spanning the full history of Lincoln.
     
    Buildings and open space within the Character Area are used for a wide variety of purposes. The Castle is a key tourist attraction and event space, but continues to house the functioning County Courts. Properties outside of the Character Area are a mixture of residential and commercial buildings. Car parks around the periphery of the Castle serve both local and visiting populations.
     
    Some of the principal surviving historic features in the current townscape include the alignment of the former Roman city defences, the 12th-century Lincoln Castle and its associated earthworks, and the medieval road layout around the Castle, parts of which may have earlier Roman origins.
     
    The Castle is a large and impermeable urban block around which buildings and streets within the Character Area are orientated. Building scale varies, with large buildings including the Castle and those within its walls, in addition to groups of smaller-scale properties outside of the ramparts. The overall building density is low, with few buildings located within the main keep, and those outside of the walls sited within a large number of open car parks. However, there is a high sense of enclosure, as the townscape within and outside of the keep remains dominated by the tall Castle curtain wall.
     
    The Castle consists of a single-storey quadrangular curtain wall within which are integrated several mainly defensive features of two to three storeys in height, including two large towers, which sit on elevated earthen mottes. Walls and buildings are constructed of coursed and squared limestone, with some areas of herringbone rubble, and have a high solid-to-void ratio with very few windows or doorways. The curtain wall has a crenellated parapet and wall walk surfaced in York stone with areas of coarse concrete infill.
     
    The Observatory Tower is three storeys in height with a high earthen motte, and rising stepped curtain wall to each side. The lower two storeys are square in plan and have a stringcourse, crenellated parapet and single lancet windows and some arrow slits on the south façade. The upper storey is a later round tower with stepped rectangular windows, crenellated projecting parapet and rooftop viewing area.
     
    Lucy Tower to the west is polygonal in plan with plain buttresses, consolidated parapet, and a northeastern gateway with inner segmental arch. The hood mould with billet and scallop motif is a later 19th-century copy from the Cathedral. Cobb Hall is comparatively smaller, and is rounded with slit windows in deep recesses and a vaulted roof.
     
    Within the Castle keep, the Assize Court is built of ashlar masonry with hipped and gabled slate roofs and crenellated parapets. The building has a three-bay wide projecting centre, central four-arched doorway, and three first-floor two-light windows. On either side there are five-bay width arcaded passages with five two-light windows below three smaller lancet windows at first-floor level. On the ends of each arcade is a single-storey stone pavilion with a single lancet window. Corners of the building are accentuated with tall crenellated octagonal corner turrets. The Old Prison and Governor’s House include a chapel and exercise yard with enclosing wall. The Governor’s House is brick-built with stone dressings and hipped slate roof, and is H-shaped in plan with a seven-bay width central range flanked by two bay wings. The property is three storeys in height with five-side wall and five ridge chimney stacks. Windows are multi-paned six above six vertical wooden sliding sashes, except on the upper floor, which are three above three. The Old Prison is located to the rear of the Governor’s House, and is linked by a single-storey chapel. The prison building is brick-built and is three storeys in height and 15 bays in width, with regular small windows, and a central canted bay window to south and west. The building has a shallow pitch gabled roof in slate, with two large ridge chimney stacks. To the south of the prison is a small semi-circular exercise yard enclosed by a tall brick wall with chamfered stone coping.
     
    The Castle keep is taken up by open areas of lawn, mature trees and deep borders that extend up the ramparts around the perimeter of the inner Castle walls. The overall effect is one of mature and landscaped parkland. The centre of the keep is entirely lawn, with the exception of the sunken area of car parking to the west. Externally, ramparts are more scrub-like in appearance.
     
    Car parks at the foot of the exterior Castle ramparts provide an open setting for much of the northern and eastern earthworks and Castle fortifications. The car parks are surfaced in tarmac and are defined by brick walls set into the base of the Castle ramparts or walls associated with the boundaries of building plots.
     
    Properties outside of the Castle walls are mostly 19th and early 20th century in date, except for a small number of Modern properties. Buildings are two to three storeys in height and two to three bays in width, and are mostly built of brick facing the road.
     
    Two small groups of early 19th-century terraces consist of small development plots with cottages built of red or yellow brick, which are set at the back of the footway. Roofs are of clay pantiles or replacement concrete tile, and have plain eaves and verges with their ridgelines running parallel to the road. The cottages are plain in style with small square or vertical multi-paned sash windows. Window lintels are either single cambered brick arches or segmental brick header arches. Some cottages vary slightly in height, exposing short sections of their gable ends, giving a stepped effect.
     
    Mid to late 19th century properties include two short terraces of 10 and 3 houses and a number of individual developments. Properties are built of red-brick, and are set back 2 to 3m from the footway, although two public houses are three storeys in height and set at the back of the footway. Buildings have medium-to-high solid-to-void ratios with wooden or brick canted/rectangular bay windows at ground level, and mainly wooden multi-paned vertical sash windows above. Doorways on terraces are located within shared passageways. Terraces are generally plain, with some simple decoration, and have gabled roofs in Welsh slate with ridgelines parallel to the street, several of which have gabled dormers.
     
    Roads are mostly two lanes in width with 1-3m wide pavements in tarmac with concrete kerbs, although some narrower streets have pink granite/York Stone setts and York stone pavements. Road junctions in the area are generally wide, and have deep pavements. There is a large amount of street furniture including some surviving Foster’s lanterns, cast-iron bollards, and a cast-iron red telephone box.
     
    There are good panoramic views from the Castle walls, in particular views of the cathedral, views over rooftops, plan views of the keep, and distant views of the Trent and Witham valleys, The Wolds, and South Common.
  • Historical Development
    Castle Character Area is dominated by the upstanding fortifications of Lincoln Castle. Although well established by the 12th century, the Castle has a complex structural history spanning almost 2000 years, reflecting the socio-political history of the city since the Roman era. The enduring functions of the Castle are apparent in both the architecture and use of buildings within the walls, and in the Castle itself. Outside of the curtain wall, the townscape is a result of the encroachment of surrounding settlement on the fortifications, and later, the realisation of the cultural value of one of Lincoln’s most iconic historic assets.
     
    The existing medieval Castle is the second of two castles that were built on the northern edge of the ‘Lincoln Gap’. The first, built c.1068, re-occupied the entire upper part of the Roman city [60-410 AD], and entailed the consolidation of existing Roman defences and gates, and the construction of a motte upon which Lucy Tower was built during the second phase of construction in the mid 12th century.
     
    The present Castle enclosure was established during the mid 12th century, although the alignment of the west wall broadly follows the corresponding wall of the Roman fortress lain out in the Roman Military Era [60-90 AD]. The embankment and masonry walls along the north, east and south of the Castle enclosure were constructed in the mid 12th century alongside a second motte beneath the Observatory Tower. Both the Lucy Tower and the Observatory Tower were built during the central years of the 12th century, although the latter has been extensively rebuilt and remodelled, notably during the 1820s when it was adapted for use as an observatory.
     View of Lincoln Castle’s Observatory Tower
    Figure 1 View of the Observatory Tower
     
    Peripheral road infrastructure including Union Road, St. Paul’s Lane and Westgate roughly marks the extent of the defensive ditch that originally surrounded the Castle walls. The retraction of the Castle bailey in the High Medieval Era [850-1350 AD] entailed the construction of new gates in the east and west fortifications, and in response, the creation of new road infrastructure in the upper city, including St. Paul’s Lane, Castle Hill and Westgate, although West Bight and Chapel Lane may have earlier Roman and Early Medieval [410-850 AD] origins respectively.
     
    Military activity associated with Lincoln Castle mainly occurred in the mid 12th and 13th centuries, and briefly c.1644 during the Civil War. In response to the besieging of the Castle in 1217, the Crown invested in the Castle defences, adding a barbican to the East Gate, the foundations of which can be observed either side of the entrance ramp from Castle Hill, and a defensive foretower, Cobb Hall, on the north-east corner of the curtain wall.
     
    In addition to serving as a defensive stronghold, the Castle also functioned as the County gaol from at least the 12th century. Since the High Medieval Era, the Castle has been a judicial centre, demonstrated in times that are more recent by the construction of the adjacent Judges’ Lodgings (c.1809) outside of the bailey in Castle Hill. The bailey remains as the location of the County Courts held within the former County gaol, built c.1787/8, and in the former Assize Court, which was originally built as the County Hall c.1823.
     Old Prison and Governor’s House within the Castle keep.
    Figure 2 Old Prison and Governor’s House within the Castle keep
     
    The dwindling military function of the Castle from the 13th century led to the renting and selling off surrounding lands during the Early Modern Era [1350-1750 AD], in particular the defensive ditches. During the Early Industrial Period [1750-1845 AD] industry developed around the Castle, including a ropewalk which ran in front and either side of numbers 41-59 Westgate, and Westgate Implement works, the rear boundary of which is marked by a stonewall between Westgate car park and the Castle ramparts.
     
    The Early Industrial Period also saw large-scale residential properties developing outside the southern Castle walls (Hilton House and Castle Moat house on Drury Lane). During the Post-Railway Expansion [1846-1868 AD], the corner of Westgate and Union Road, and land opposite Westgate car park was developed or redeveloped. Surviving properties at 18 Westgate, 3-5 West Bight and 4-6 Union Road (including the Victoria Public House), were built during this period. Number 2 West Bight also appears to date from this period; however, the stone wall incorporated into its southern gable end may indicate the partial re-use of earlier building material of Early Modern date.
     
    During the Late Victorian/Edwardian Period [1868-1919 AD], working class housing, such as 41-59 Westgate (c.1901) and 12 to 32 Union Road (c.1913/14), was built on the north and west sides of the Castle. The former defensive ditch still survives in the sunken rear gardens of properties along Union Road.
     View looking south along the west Castle wall. Note the sunken gardens within the Castle's defensive ditch to the rear of terraces along Union Road
    Figure 3 View looking south along the west Castle wall. Note the sunken gardens within the Castle's defensive ditch to the rear of terraces along Union Road
     
    Expanding populations in and around the Character Area during the 19th century prompted the development of community services and infrastructure such as the Struggler’s Inn at 83 Westgate, and The Victoria Public House at 6 Union Road. In 1848, a new reservoir serving the northern part of Lincoln opened slightly north of the Character Area. Two schools opened in 1895 on the current site of Westgate Junior School, which later expanded and amalgamated into a single mixed school in 1911-13.
     
    During the Post-War [1946-1966 AD] and Modern [1968-2009 AD] Periods many residential and industrial properties around the Castle were cleared and redeveloped as car parks, reflecting the increased use of the motorcar, but also, the growing significance of the Castle as a tourist destination. In the 1980’s the wall walk along the Castle fortifications was created and the West Gate was re-opened in 1992, both of which consolidated the Castle’s role as a key historic and tourist asset within the city.
  • Urban form
    Lincoln Castle is a landmark building located in a strategic position at the top of the south escarpment overlooking the city centre and the Witham valley. The Character Area includes the spacious Castle keep and fortifications, as well as a number of buildings lying outside of the main walls, which fall under the influence of the curtain walls.
     
    The Character Area is located on a level part of the upper escarpment; however, the earthen Castle ramparts are landscape-sized features, which are conspicuous throughout the area. Within the Castle, the centre of the keep is flat, except to the south, which is a sunken area or lower terrace with car park.
     
    The Castle forms a large and impermeable urban block around which buildings and streets within the Character Area are orientated. Roads, including Westgate, St. Paul’s Lane and Union Road are aligned parallel to the north, east and west Castle walls respectively. Alongside Drury Lane, which lies to the south of the area, the roads form a near complete circuit around the ramparts, which is only truncated by the Judge’s Lodgings outside of the East Gate. Remaining access, including Castle Hill, Burton Road, West Bight and Chapel Lane, focus on the Castle, linking it directly with other strategic areas of the city including the Cathedral and the former north gate, as well as Lincoln’s wider hinterland.
     
    The scale of buildings varies, with large buildings including the Castle and those within its keep, in addition to groups of small-scale properties outside of the ramparts with the exception of the Westgate School complex. The Castle and properties outside of it occupy most, if not the full width, of their plots. Buildings within blocks include the Assize Court, the Old Prison, and Governor’s House in the keep. Overall building density is low, with few buildings located within the main keep, and those outside of the walls sited within a large number of open car parks adjacent to the foot of the external ramparts. Nonetheless, the sense of enclosure within the Character Area is high as the townscape, within and outside of the keep, remains dominated by the taller Castle curtain wall.
     Castle walls with car park in front of it
    Figure 4 High solid-to-void ratio and increased sense of enclosure around the Castle walls
     
    The Castle consists of a quadrangular curtain wall within which are several integrated mostly defensive features including the East Gate and lodges, West Gate, Cobb Hall, Observatory Tower, Lucy Tower, and a small Early Modern bath house abutting the interior part of the north wall. The main curtain wall sits on top of high earthen ramparts, and is a tall single-storey in height. Buildings integrated within the wall vary from two to three storeys in height, including the Lucy and Observatory towers, which sit on elevated earthen mottes. Walls and buildings are constructed of coursed and squared limestone, with some areas of herringbone rubble within the curtain wall (e.g. internally within the north-western corner, and externally immediately south of the West Gate), and have a high solid-to-void ratio with very few windows or doorways. The curtain wall has a crenellated parapet and wall walk surfaced in York stone with areas of coarse concrete infill. Railings along the wall walk are of thin steel post and lattice construction, and steps are a mixture of steel and iron construction.
     
    The east gateway has a double chamfered gothic arched gateway with semicircular turrets above. The main entrance is a tunnel vault followed by a pair of crenellated lodges in the form of a barbican. The lodges have semi-circular western ends with three stone mullioned double lancet windows on each floor. The roofs are both hipped and gabled and are of slate. Inside the gateway, the north wall has an ornate canted oriel window taken from a medieval house opposite St. Mary’s Guildhall on High Street. The West Gate has a projecting square gateway with a plain semicircular archway below two slit windows and a blocked doorway. The remains of a former barbican project west from the gateway. The entrance has a modern suspended steel and wooden pathway in the style of a drawbridge.
     
    The Observatory Tower to the south is a tall three storeys in height, which is accentuated by the high earthen motte beneath, and the stepped curtain wall on either side, which rises up to join the tower at first-floor level. The lower two storeys are square in plan, and have a string course, crenellated parapet and single lancet windows and some arrow slits on the south facade. In the south-west corner is a later round tower with stepped rectangular windows, crenellated projecting parapet with stone brackets beneath, and rooftop viewing area. Lucy Tower to the west is less extensively restored, and is polygonal in plan with plain buttresses and consolidated parapet. The tower has a north-eastern gateway with inner segmental arch. The hood mould with billet and scallop motif is a later 19th-century copy from the Cathedral. The Cobb Hall is comparatively smaller, and is rounded with slit windows in deep recesses. The roof is vaulted and is covered with wooden slats and plywood boarding.
     
    The Assize Courts, and the Old Prison and Governor’s House are located within the Castle keep. The Assize Courts are approached via a long narrow straight road with a turning circle at the end running from the East Gate. The courts are built of ashlar masonry with hipped and gabled slate roofs and crenellated parapets. The building has a three-bay wide projecting centre, central four-arched doorway, and three first-floor two-light windows. On either side the building has five-bay width arcaded passages with five two-light windows below three smaller lancet windows at first-floor level. On the ends of each arcade is a single-storey stone pavilion with a single lancet window. Corners of the building, including the pavilions, central projection and the main range, are accentuated with tall crenellated octagonal corner turrets.
     Lincoln Assize Court east façade within the Castle Keep. The courts are built of ashlar masonry with hipped and gabled slate roofs and crenellated parapets.
    Figure 5 Lincoln Assize Court east façade
     
    The Old Prison and Governor’s House includes a chapel and exercise yard with enclosing wall. The Governor’s House is a brick-built building with stone dressings and hipped slate roof. The property is aligned parallel to the road leading to the Assize Courts, and is H-shaped in plan with a seven-bay width central range flanked by two bay wings. The property is three storeys in height with five-side wall and five ridge chimney stacks.
    The house has a medium-to-high solid-to-void ratio, with multi-paned 6 above 6 vertical wooden sliding sashes, except on the upper floor, which are three above three. Second-floor windows on the central range are barred. The main entrance is located centrally and has a part-glazed door, over-light, and ashlar surround. The Old Prison is located to the rear of the Governor’s House, and is linked by a single-storey chapel. The prison building is brick-built and is three storeys in height and 15 bays in width. Despite regular openings, the building has a high solid-to-void ratio. The south side has seven small iron framed glazing bar windows on each level either side of a central canted bay window with stone mullions and brick parapet that extends to eaves height. The western façade has a similar bay window to verge height. The building has a shallow-pitch gabled roof in slate, with two large ridge chimney stacks. To the south of the building is a small semi-circular exercise yard enclosed by a tall brick wall with chamfered stone coping.
     
    The remainder of the Castle keep is taken up by an open lawn area, mature trees and deep borders, which extend up the ramparts around the perimeter of the inner Castle walls. The overall effect is one of mature and landscaped parkland, which contrasts with the often defensively built architecture of the Castle, prison and Assize Court. The majority of the ramparts are either well maintained planted floral and shrub borders such as that to the north of the East Gate, or areas of natural scrub (e.g. Lucy Tower motte). A small juvenile orchard is located in the north-west corner of the keep. Mature trees are integrated with the planted borders around the keep’s edges, but are all also more freestanding in areas away slightly from the curtain wall, giving a wooded effect in places. The centre of the keep is entirely lawn, with the exception of roads and the sunken area of car parking to the west. Externally, ramparts are more scrub-like in appearance, with some areas showing evidence of subsidence and erosion.
     Mature trees and borders located on the inner ramparts to the north of the East Gate of Lincoln Castle.
    Figure 6 Mature trees and borders located on the inner ramparts to the north of the East Gate
     
    Car parks at the foot of the exterior Castle ramparts provide an open setting for much of the northern and eastern earthworks and Castle fortifications. The car parks are defined by brick retaining walls set into the base of the Castle ramparts, and are divided from other areas of parking by brick walls associated with the boundaries of building plots, such as Cobb Hall and 41-59 Westgate. The car parks are surfaced in tarmac and have some limited landscaping, including the line of trees along the northern boundary of Westgate car park.
     
    Buildings outside of the Castle walls are mostly 19th- and early-20th century properties dating from the Early Industrial Period to the Late Victorian/Edwardian Period, with the exception of a small number of Modern properties. Buildings are two to three storeys in height and two to three bays in width. Almost all properties face the street, with the exception of 2 West Bight which, despite occupying the corner plot with Westgate, faces on to the smaller of the two roads. Buildings are mostly brick-built in either English or Flemish Bond, except for 2 West Bight and the former stable block at number 11a Union Road, which are built of stone.
     
    Two small groups of early 19th-century terraces are located near the corner of Union Road and Westgate, and on the corner of West Bight and Westgate. The terraces along West Bight consist of two small development plots of two and three cottages built of red brick. Those along Union Road are built of a yellow brick, and include numbers 4 and 5, the first of which is a single surviving property from an original group of four. The properties are set at the back of the footway and are plain in style with small square sash windows or some replacement uPVC casements along West Bight, and vertical multi-paned sash windows along Union Road. Window lintels are either single cambered brick arches or segmental brick header arches. Window sills on cottages along Union Road are made of chamfered blue brick headers. The terraced houses have their ridgelines running parallel to the road, and are roofed in clay pantiles or replacement concrete tile. 3-5 West Bight have brick chimneys on their gable ends passing through the ridgeline. The cottages vary slightly in height, exposing short sections of their gable ends, giving a stepped effect. Eaves and verges are plain. Doors are partially glazed and are flush with the main façade along West Bight or set within a shallow brick porch or wooden surround along Union Road.
     Group of early 19th century cottages on the corner of West Bight and Westgate with cobbling down some streets.
    Figure 7 Group of early 19th century cottages on the corner of West Bight and Westgate
     
    The majority of the remaining buildings in the Character Area are mid-to-late 19th century in date or are built in a similar style (38 Westgate). Properties include a terrace of 10 and 3 houses either side of Westgate, as well as a number of individual developments such as the Struggler’s Inn, Victoria Public House and the Tower Hotel. Buildings are built of red brick laid in various bonds. Properties are mainly 2 to 2 and a half storeys in height and are set back 2-3m from the footway with small gardens or forecourts, except for the two public houses, both of which are three storeys in height and set at the back of the footway. Where set back, plots are defined by low brick walls with ceramic or stone coping. Buildings have medium-to-high solid-to-void ratios with wooden or brick canted/rectangular bay windows at ground level and mainly wooden multi-paned vertical sash windows above, although there are some modern replacements. Windows have stone sills and moulded stone lintels, except for 24 Westgate, which has cambered brick arches. The Struggler’s Inn and the Tower Hotel both have first-floor bay windows, the latter of which is centrally mounted above the main entrance. Doorways on terraces are located within shared passageways, some of which have an additional door flush with the main façade. Doorways on other buildings are mostly flush with the front façade and have stone lintels, with the exception of 24 Westgate, which is recessed within a semi-circular brick arched porch. Many doors at the front of properties have plain horizontal fan-lights. Properties are generally plain, with some simple decoration on the façade including polychromatic stringcourses and moulded/dentilation brickwork in the eaves, such as the paired brackets and classical moulding with the eaves of 24 Westgate. Roofs are of Welsh slate, and are gabled with their ridgelines running parallel to the street. Several properties, including 41 to 49 Union Road and the Tower Hotel have gabled dormers with modern casement windows.
     Short terraced of Late Victorian/Edwardian houses with shared entrances along Westgate. The properties each have bay windows on the ground floor with lintels above windows and the access to the shared entrance.
    Figure 8 Short terrace of Late Victorian/Edwardian houses with shared entrances along Westgate
     
    The Character Area includes a small number of more individual buildings such as Castle Cottage, Cobb Hall and 18 Westgate. Castle Cottage in the east of the area is built of course stone with ashlar dressings. The property has vertical multi-pane sash windows at ground-floor level, two of which are set within a wooden shop front. At first-floor level the buildings has two small circular windows either side of a wide dormer window with a pair of Yorkshire sliding sashes on the north façade, in addition to an arched window on the gable end that faces the road. Space to the front of the property is used as an outside dining/drinking terrace, and forms part of a public square based around the West Gate of the Castle. 18 Westgate is a three bay width house set back 14m from the road. The building has a gabled pantile roof with the ridgeline running parallel to the road. The main façade is rendered and painted cream, and has been altered to incorporate wide modern windows and a single gabled extension, which occupies the full width of building. Cobb Hall Centre is a small complex of low two-storey buildings immediately north east of Cobb Hall. The buildings are brick-built with large multi-paned windows, and are linked via a small conservatory, resulting in a medium solid-to-void ratio. Roofs on the building are gabled and in pantiles, and have sloping flat-roofed dormer windows. The public house/restaurant to the north has a large rooftop terrace with drinking/dining area.
     
    Modern buildings in the Character Area include Westgate Junior School and 26 Westgate. The school building, playground and playing fields to the rear occupy a large corner plot on the corner of Westgate and Reservoir Street. The school is a complex of several buildings and extensions of various constructions, including brick-built and concrete-framed buildings with flat, gabled and hipped roofs. The façade facing Westgate consists of two single-storey buildings set back from the road behind tall railings. The buildings vary from 7-20 bays in width, and have medium-to-low solid-to-void ratios with large and regular windows. 26 Westgate is a two-storey building with a pitched gabled roof orientated perpendicular to the street. The building has a low solid-to-void ratio, being mostly glazed to the front.
     Late Victorian/Edwardian house adjacent to a modern glass and rendered building at 26 Westgate with view of a water tower in the background.
    Figure 9 Late Victorian/Edwardian house adjacent to a modern glass and rendered building at 26 Westgate
     
    Streets in the Character Area are mostly tarmac and include some wider two-lane connecting roads such as Westgate and Union Road, and single-lane width cul-de-sacs (e.g. St. Paul’s Lane, Reservoir Street). St. Paul’s Lane is surfaced in red granite setts with York stone channels. Pavements are mostly surfaced in tarmac with concrete kerbs, and are 1-3m in width, being wider along Westgate than elsewhere in the Character Area. Parts of the Character Area, such as along St. Pauls’ Lane, have riven York stone paving and York stone kerbs. In addition, some wide crossovers on junctions, roadside verges, and pavement borders have pink granite or white limestone setts, such as the car park entrance off Union Road and the south side of Westgate pavement respectively. Several roads retain cast-iron nameplates, and some houses have their original cast-iron house numbers.
     
    There is a large amount of street furniture throughout the Character Area, a large proportion of which is modern, including benches, CCTV, wooden/steel telegraph poles and road signs. However, some older street furniture survives, including Foster’s lanterns, cast-iron bollards, and a red telephone box. In addition, some modern furniture, such as the cast-iron fingerpost signs, is replicated in a more ‘traditional’ style.
     
    The Character Area has several large areas of open space, in particular the Castle gardens and areas of car parking immediately outside of the fortifications and within the southern part of the keep itself. The Castle gardens are an extensive area of lawns and mature gardens, which is publicly accessible for an entrance fee. The area is also a large event space, which is used for public and private events such as Lincoln’s annual Christmas market. Road junctions in the area are generally wide, and have deep pavements, notably the junction of Westgate and St. Paul’s Lane, which, combined with the St. Paul-in-the-Bail site, forms an undefined open public space. Immediately outside of the Castle’s West Gate is also an area of open space, which is used as a terrace for the Victoria public house, and as an event space during the Christmas market.
    Public open space in front of the west gate of the Castle. The area is paved with a pathway leading up to the Castle.
    Figure 10 Public open space in front of the west gate of the Castle
  • Views
    There are good panoramic views from the Castle walls and Observatory Tower, in particular, views of the Cathedral’s west façade, views over rooftops (especially within central parts of the upper city), plan views of the keep, as well as more distant views of the River Trent and River Witham valleys, The Wolds, and South Common and the south escarpment. 
    Short and distant views east from the Observatory Tower of Lincoln Castle toward the Cathedral and surrounding area.
    Figure 11 Short and distant views east from the Observatory Tower
  • Condition of Buildings and Streetscape
    Buildings within the Character Area appear to be in good condition; however, many windows, doors, rainwater goods and roof materials have been substituted with modern materials. Street furniture and materials vary around the Character Area, resulting in an incoherent streetscape in places.
  • Use
    Buildings and open space within the Character Area are used for a wide variety of purposes. The Castle is a key tourist attraction and event space, but continues to house the functioning County Courts. Properties outside of the Castle are a mixture of residential and commercial buildings. Car parks around the periphery of the Castle serve both local and visiting populations, and are important amenities for both locals and tourists visiting the upper part of the city centre.
  • Relationship to City and Surrounding Areas
    The Castle is a landmark feature located in the heart of the city of Lincoln. The Character Area is a central part of the upper city, which, alongside neighbouring Bailgate and Castle Hill and the Cathedral Character Areas, forms part of an identifiable neighbourhood on the north escarpment throughout which the townscape character is strongly influenced by developments from the full history of Lincoln as a city. As a result, the area and its surrounds are an important visitor attraction for people from across the world.
  • Key Townscape Characteristics
             Includes Lincoln Castle, a landmark building located in a strategic position at the top of the north escarpment, and a number of buildings lying outside of the main walls which fall under the influence of the Castle
             Central part of the upper city which, alongside neighbouring areas, forms part of an identifiable neighbourhood on the north escarpment, the townscape character of which is strongly influenced by developments from the full history of Lincoln
             Buildings and open space within the Character Area are used for a wide variety of purposes. The Castle is a key tourist attraction and event space, but continues to house the functioning County Courts. Properties outside of the Character Area are a mixture of residential and commercial buildings. Car parks around the periphery of the Castle serve both local and visiting populations
             Some earlier historic features survive in the current townscape, including:
    o         Alignment of the former Roman city defences
    o         12th-century Lincoln Castle and earthworks
    o         Medieval road layout around the Castle, parts of which may have Roman origins
             Large and impermeable urban block around which buildings and streets within the Character Area are orientated
             Building scale varies, with large buildings including the Castle and those within its keep, in addition to groups of smaller-scale properties outside of the ramparts
             Overall building density is low, with few buildings located within the main keep, and those outside of the walls sited within a large number of open car parks
             High sense of enclosure, as the townscape within and outside of the keep remains dominated by the tall Castle curtain wall
             The Castle consists of a single-storey quadrangular curtain wall within which are several mostly defensive features of two to three storeys in height including two large towers which sit on elevated earthen mottes
             Walls and buildings are constructed of coursed and squared limestone, with some areas of herringbone rubble, and have a high solid-to-void ratio with very few windows or doorways. The curtain wall has crenellated parapet and wall walk surfaced in York stone with areas of coarse concrete infill
             The Observatory Tower is three storeys in height with high earthen motte and rising stepped curtain wall on either side. The lower two storeys are square in plan and have a stringcourse, crenellated parapet and single lancet windows and some arrow slits on the south facade. The upper storey is a later round tower with stepped rectangular windows, crenellated projecting parapet and rooftop viewing area
             Lucy Tower to the west is polygonal in plan with plain buttresses, consolidated parapet, and a northeastern gateway with inner segmental arch. The hood mould with billet and scallop motif is a later 19th-century copy from the Cathedral
             Cobb Hall is comparatively smaller, and is rounded with slit windows in deep recesses and a vaulted roof
             The Assize courts are built of ashlar masonry with hipped and gabled slate roofs and crenellated parapets. The building has a three-bay wide projecting centre, central four-arched doorway, and three first-floor two-light windows. On either side the building has five-bay width arcaded passages with five two-light windows, below 3 smaller lancet windows at first-floor level. On the ends of each arcade is a single-storey stone pavilion with a single lancet window. Corners of the building are accentuated with tall crenellated octagonal corner turrets
             The Old Prison and Governor’s House includes a chapel and exercise yard with enclosing wall. The Governor’s House is brick-built with stone dressings and hipped slate roof, and is H-shaped in plan with a seven-bay width central range flanked by two-bay wings. The property is three storeys in height with five-side wall and five ridge chimney stacks. Windows are multi-paned six above six vertical wooden sliding sashes, except on the upper floor which are three above three
             The Old Prison is located to the rear of the Governor’s House, and is linked by a single-storey chapel. The prison building is brick-built and is three storeys in height and 15 bays in width. Regular small windows and central canted bay window to south and west. The building has a shallow pitch gabled roof in slate, with two large ridge chimney stacks. To the south of the building is a small semi-circular exercise yard enclosed by a tall brick wall with chamfered stone coping
             The Castle keep is taken up by open areas of lawn, mature trees and deep borders, which extend up the ramparts around the perimeter of the inner Castle walls. The overall effect is one of mature and landscaped parkland. The centre of the keep is lawn, with the exception of the sunken area of car parking to the west. Externally, ramparts are more scrub-like in appearance
             Car parks at the foot of the exterior Castle ramparts provide an open setting for much of the northern and eastern earthworks and fortifications. The car parks are surfaced in tarmac and are defined by brick walls set into the base of the Castle ramparts or walls associated with the boundaries of building plots
             Properties outside of the Castle walls are mostly 19th- and early 20th-century in date, except for a small number of Modern properties. Buildings are two to three storeys in height and two to three bays in width, and are mostly built of brick facing the road
             Two small groups of early 19th-century terraces consist of small development plots with cottages built of red or yellow brick:
    o         Set at the back of the footway
    o         Ridgelines running parallel to the road
    o         Plain in style with small square or vertical multi-paned sash windows
    o         Window lintels are either single cambered brick arches or segmental brick header arches
    o         Some cottages vary slightly in height, exposing short sections of their gable ends, giving a stepped effect
    o         Roofs are of clay pantiles or replacement concrete tile, and have plain eaves and verges
             Mid to late 19th century properties include two terraces of 10 and 3 houses and a number of individual developments:
    o         Built of red-brick
    o         Set back 2-3m from the footway
    o         Doorways on terraces are located within shared passageways
    o         Medium-to-high solid-to-void ratios with wooden or brick canted/rectangular bay windows at ground level and mainly wooden multi-paned vertical sash windows above
    o         Two public houses are three storeys in height and set at the back of the footway
    o         Generally plain, with some simple decoration
    o         Gabled roofs in Welsh slate with ridgelines parallel to the street
    o         Several properties have gabled dormers
             Two lane width roads and 1-3m wide pavements are mostly tarmac with concrete kerbs, although some narrower streets have pink granite/York Stone setts and York stone pavements. Road junctions in the area are generally wide, and have deep pavements.
             Large amount of street furniture including some surviving Foster’s lanterns, cast-iron bollards, and a red telephone box
             Several large areas of open space, including the Castle and surrounding car parks, some of which are used as a public and private event space, and as space for restaurants/pubs
             There are good panoramic views, in particular views of the Cathedral, views over rooftops, plan views of the keep, and distant views of the Trent and Witham valleys, The Wolds, and South Common